Sydenham is a residential suburb 22 km north-west of central Melbourne.
The land is mostly a grassed basalt plain. The railway line (1859) to Sunbury passes through Sydenham. A station was provided where the line crossed Keilor Road, and was known by that name until renamed Sydenham in 1887. The origin of the name is apparently unrecorded. The area came under a closer settlement scheme in 1903, and after considerable local agitation a primary school was opened in 1911.